عنوان مقاله [English]
Background & Purpose: Circulatory Apelin increases in metabolic disorders and its levels could be used as a specific index for insulin sensitivity and its etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks aerobic training on serum Apelin and metabolic risk factors in women with metabolic syndrome.
Methodology: 24 women with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned into exercise (n=12) or control (n=12) groups. Subjects in exercise group carried out 20-40 min aerobic exercise program at 50-60% of heart rate reserve 3 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Body composition was assessed and blood samples were taken prior to the training program and 48 h after the last training session. Paired t-test was used for within-group comparison and independent t-test was used for between-group comparison, and Pearson's correlation test was used to evaluate the relationship between variables.
Results: Significant correlations were observed between Apelin levels and all the metabolic risk factors at the baseline where all subjects included in the analysis (p0.05). Body weight, Apelin, glucose, insulin resistance index, mean atrial pressure and waist circumference were significantly decreased (p
Conclusions: Aerobic training can reduce serum Apelin levels and improve insulin resistance and also some of the metabolic risk factors in women with metabolic syndrome. However, the decreased Apelin levels in accompany with an improved metabolic profile indicates on its mediatory role to induce metabolic improvements by physical exercise.
##Laaksonen DE, Lakka H-M, Niskanen LK, Kaplan GA, Salonen JT, Lakka TA. 2002. Metabolic syndrome and development of diabetes mellitus: Application and validation of recently suggested definitions of the metabolic syndrome in a prospective cohort study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 156: 1070-1077.##Wasir J, Misra A, Vikram N, Pandey R, Gupta R. 2008. Comparison of definitions of the metabolic syndrome in adult asian indians. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. 56: 158.##Cabia B, Andrade S, Carreira M, Casanueva F, Crujeiras A. 2016. A role for novel adipose tissue‐secreted factors in obesity‐related carcinogenesis. Obesity Reviews. 17: 361-376.##Trayhurn P, Wood IS. 2004. Adipokines: Inflammation and the pleiotropic role of white adipose tissue. British Journal of Nutrition. 92: 347-355.##Castan-Laurell I, Vítkova M, Daviaud D, Dray C, Kováčiková M, Kovacova Z, Hejnova J, Stich V, Valet P. 2008. Effect of hypocaloric diet-induced weight loss in obese women on plasma apelin and adipose tissue expression of apelin and apj. European Journal of Endocrinology. 158: 905-910.##Boucher J, Masri B, Daviaud D, Gesta S, Guigné C, Mazzucotelli A, Castan-Laurell I, Tack I, Knibiehler B, Carpéné C. 2005. Apelin, a newly identified adipokine up-regulated by insulin and obesity. Endocrinology. 146: 1764-1771.##Karbek B, Bozkurt N, Topaloglu O, Aslan M, Gungunes A, Cakal E, Delibasi T. 2014. Relationship of vaspin and apelin levels with insulin resistance and atherosclerosis in metabolic syndrome. Minerva Endocrinologica. 39: 99.##Zhang J, Ren CX, Qi YF, Lou LX, Chen L, Zhang LK, Wang X, Tang C. 2006. Exercise training promotes expression of apelin and apj of cardiovascular tissues in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Life Sciences. 79: 1153-1159.##Erdem G, Dogru T, Tasci I, Sonmez A, Tapan S. 2008. Low plasma apelin levels in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes: official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association. 116: 289-292.##Iozzo P. 2009. Viewpoints on the way to the consensus session: Where does insulin resistance start? The adipose tissue. Diabetes Care. 32: 5168-5173.##Daryanoosh F, Aminilari Z. 2015. The effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on the apelin, omentin-1 levels and insulin resistance in the elderly overweight women with type 2 diabetes. Zanjan Uni Medic Sci J. 23: 29-40. (In Persian).##Nikseresht M, Rajabi H, Nikseresht A. 2015. The effects of nonlinear resistance and aerobic interval training on serum levels of apelin and insulin resistance in middle-aged obese men. Tehran University Medical Journal. 73: 375-383. (In Persian).##Askari R, Hamedinia MR. 2015. The effect of combined and endurance training on plasma apelin and insulin insensitivity among some overweight females. Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Metababolism. 14: 345-356. (In Persian).##Mohebbi H, Rahmani Nia F, Hedayati Emami M, Saeidi Ziabari T. 2014. The effect of 8 weeks moderate intensity aerobic exercise on plasma apelin level and insulin resistance in women with type 2 diabetes. Sport Physiology. 5: 115-128. (In Persian).##Besse-Patin A, Montastier E, Vinel C, Castan-Laurell I, Louche K, Dray C, Daviaud D, Mir L, Marques M, Thalamas C. 2014. Effect of endurance training on skeletal muscle myokine expression in obese men: Identification of apelin as a novel myokine. Intnational Journal of Obesity. 38: 707-713.##Fujie S, Sato K, Miyamoto-Mikami E, Hasegawa N, Fujita S, Sanada K, Hamaoka T, Iemitsu M. 2014. Reduction of arterial stiffness by exercise training is associated with increasing plasma apelin level in middle-aged and older adults. PloS One. 9.##Kadoglou NP, Vrabas IS, Kapelouzou A, Lampropoulos S, Sailer N, Kostakis A, Liapis CD, Angelopoulou N. 2012. The impact of aerobic exercise training on novel adipokines, apelin and ghrelin, in patients with type 2 diabetes. Medical Science Monitor Basic Research. 18: CR290-CR295.##Yang H, Zhao L, Zhang J, Tang C-S, Qi Y-F. 2015. Effect of treadmill running on apelin and apj expression in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 36: 535-541.##Azali Alamdari K, Rohani H. 2015. Metabolic and endocrine adaptations of aerobic training in men with generalized stages of metabolic syndrome. Sport Physiology. 7: 149-166. (In Persian).##Yu S, Zhang Y, Li M, Xu H, Wang Q, Song J, Lin P, Zhang L, Liu Q, Huang Q. 2012. Chemerin and apelin are positively correlated with inflammation in obese type 2 diabetic patients. Chinese Medical Journal. 125: 3440-3444.##Rohani H, Azali Alamdari K, Helalizadeh M. 2016. Effect of aerobic training on overall metabolic risk and indices levels in patients with metabolic syndrome: A meta-analysis study. Sport Physiology. 8: 17-44. (In Persian).##Tohidi M, Hatami M, Hadaegh F, Azizi F. 2012. Triglycerides and triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio are strong predictors of incident hypertension in middle eastern women. Journal of Human Hypertension. 26: 525-532.##Kohrt W, Obert K, Holloszy J. 1992. Exercise training improves fat distribution patterns in 60-to 70-year-old men and women. Journals of Gerontology. 47: M99-M105.##Regazzi R, Widmann C. 2012. Genetics and molecular biology: Mirnas take the HDL ride. Current Opinion in Lipidology. 23: 165.##Klancic T, Woodward L, Hofmann SM, Fisher EA. 2016. High density lipoprotein and metabolic disease: Potential benefits of restoring its functional properties. Molecular Metabolism. In press. .##Serban C, Muntean D, Mikhailids DP, Toth PP, Banach M. 2014. Dysfunctional HDL: The journey from savior to slayer. Clinical Lipidology. 9: 49-59.##Lehti M, Donelan E, Abplanalp W, Al-Massadi O, Habegger KM, Weber J, Ress C, Mansfeld J, Somvanshi S, Trivedi C, Keuper M, Ograjsek T, Striese C, Cucuruz S, Pfluger PT, Krishna R, Gordon SM, Silva RA, Luquet S, Castel J, Martinez S, D'alessio D, Davidson WS, Hofmann SM. 2013. High-density lipoprotein maintains skeletal muscle function by modulating cellular respiration in mice. Circulation. 128: 2364-2371.##Borer KT. 2013. Advanced exercise endocrinology. Human Kinetics.##Kissebah AH, Krakower GR. 1994. Regional adiposity and morbidity. Physiological Reviews. 74: 761-811.##Askari R, Hedayati M. 2014. The effect of 12 week interval endurance exercise training on plasma apelin and anthropometric indices among overweight females##Sport Psychology. 26: 97-112. (In Persian).##Castan-Laurell I, Dray C, Attané C, Duparc T, Knauf C, Valet P. 2011. Apelin, diabetes, and obesity. Endocrine. 40: 1-9.##Yue P, Jin H, Aillaud M, Deng AC, Azuma J, Asagami T, Kundu RK, Reaven GM, Quertermous T, Tsao PS. 2010. Apelin is necessary for the maintenance of insulin sensitivity. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism. 298: E59-E67.##Zhu S, Sun F, Li W, Cao Y, Wang C, Wang Y, Liang D, Zhang R, Zhang S, Wang H. 2011. Apelin stimulates glucose uptake through the pi3k/akt pathway and improves insulin resistance in 3t3-l1 adipocytes. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 353: 305-313.##Tatemoto K, Hosoya M, Habata Y, Fujii R, Kakegawa T, Zou M-X, Kawamata Y, Fukusumi S, Hinuma S, Kitada C. 1998. Isolation and characterization of a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the human apj receptor. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 251: 471-476.##Chaves-Almagro C, Castan-Laurell I, Dray C, Knauf C, Valet P, Masri B. 2015. Apelin receptors: From signaling to antidiabetic strategy. European Journal of Pharmacology. 763, Part B: 149-159.##Than A, He HL, Chua SH, Xu D, Sun L, Leow MK-S, Chen P. 2015. Apelin enhances brown adipogenesis and browning of white adipocytes. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 290: 14679-14691.##Fröhlich M, Imhof A, Berg G, Hutchinson WL, Pepys MB, Boeing H, Muche R, Brenner H, Koenig W. 2000. Association between c-reactive protein and features of the metabolic syndrome: A population-based study. Diabetes Care. 23: 1835-1839.##Gommers LM, Hoenderop JG, Bindels RJ, De Baaij JH. 2016. Hypomagnesemia in type 2 diabetes: A vicious circle? Diabetes. 65: 3-13.##