مقایسه اثر سه برنامه تمرین مقاومتی- کششی، مقاومتی- الاستیک و مقاومتی- پلایومتریک بر عملکرد عضلانی و ترکیب بدن در مردان اندام پرور

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناس ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزش، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه فیزیولوژی ورزش، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: مقایسه اثر سه برنامه تمرین مقاومتی- کششی، مقاومتی- الاستیک و مقاومتی- پلایومتریک بر عملکرد عضلانی و ترکیب بدن در مردان اندام‌پرور بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: 30 مرد اندام‌پرور (میانگین سن 6/0±35/22 سال، وزن 55/5±87/78 کیلوگرم، قد 06/6±54/175 سانتی‌متر و درصد چربی بدن 8/3 ±7/15) به صورت تصادفی به سه گروه تمرینات مقاومتی- پلایومتریک، مقاومتی- الاستیک و مقاومتی -کششی ‌تقسیم شدند. برنامه‌های تمرینی به مدت شش هفته‌ (سه بار در هفته) انجام شد. قبل و بعد از دوره تمرینی از همه افراد آزمون‌های استقامت عضلانی بالاتنه و پایین‌تنه، حجم عضلانی بالاتنه و پایین‌تنه، توان عضلانی بالاتنه و پایین‌تنه، قدرت عضلانی بالاتنه و پایین‌تنه، انعطاف‌پذیری بالاتنه و پایین‌تنه و درصد چربی بدن گرفته شد. داده‌ها با استفاده از آزمون‌های کولموگروف–اسمیرنوف، تحلیل واریانس یک‌طرفه، کروسکال-والیس، تی وابسته و ویلکاکسون در سطح معنی‌داری P≤0.05 تحلیل شدند.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان ‌داد تمرینات مقاومتی- پلایومتریک نسبت به تمرینات مقاومتی- کششی و تمرینات مقاومتی- الاستیک موجب افزایش معنی‌دار شاخص‌های استقامت عضلانی پایین‌تنه، حجم عضلانی بالاتنه و پایین‌تنه و قدرت پایین‌تنه ‌شد. تمرین مقاومتی- الاستیک نسبت به تمرینات مقاومتی- کششی و مقاومتی- پلایومتریک موجب افزایش معنی‌دار استقامت عضلانی بالاتنه شد. همچنین، بین سه شیوه تمرینی در شاخص‌های توان عضلانی بالاتنه و پایین‌تنه، قدرت بالاتنه، درصد چربی بدن و انعطاف-پذیری بالاتنه و پایین‌تنه تفاوت معنی‌داری مشاهده نشد.
نتیجه‌گیری: مردان اندام پرور می‌توانند برای بهبود شاخص‌های استقامت عضلانی پایین‌تنه، حجم عضلانی بالاتنه و پایین‌تنه و قدرت پایین‌تنه خود از تمرینات مقاومتی پلایومتریک استفاده کنند. برای بهبود شاخص استقامت عضلانی بالاتنه از تمرینات مقاومتی- الاستیک سود ببرند. همچنین، برای بهبود شاخص‌های توان عضلانی بالاتنه و پایین‌تنه، قدرت بالاتنه، درصد چربی بدن و انعطاف‌پذیری بالاتنه و پایین‌تنه از هز سه برنامه تمرینی استفاده کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of the effects of three training programs of stretch-resistance, elastic- resistance and plyometric- resistance on muscle function and body composition in male bodybuilders

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Nasiri Hooshmand 1
  • . . 2
  • Seyed Alireza Hosseini Kakhk 2
1 MSc student of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.
2 .
چکیده [English]

Background & purpose: Comparison of the effects of three training programs of stretch resistance, elastic resistance and plyometric resistance on muscle function and body composition in male bodybuilders.
Methodology: Thirty male bodybuliders (mean age: 22.35±0.6 years, weight: 78.87±5.55 kg, height: 175.54±6.06 cm and body fat percentage: 15.7±3.8) were randomly divided into three groups of plyometric resistance, elastic resistance and stretch resistance. Training programs were performed for six weeks (three times weekly). Before and after the training programs the muscular endurance test of the upper and lower extremities, muscle volume of the upper and lower extremities, upper and lower extremities muscle power, the muscle strength of upper and lower extremities, flexibility of the upper and lower extremities and body fat percentage. Data were analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, one-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis, dependent t-test and Wilcoxon at the significant level P≤0.05.
Results: The results showed that plyometric resistance training increase significantly the muscular endurance indices of the lower extremity, upper and lower extremities volume, and lower ectremity strength compared with the resistance stretching and elastic resistance training programs. The elastic resistance training increased significantly the upper extremity indurance compared with the resistsnce stretching and resistance plyometric programs. Furthermore, there was no significant difference among the three programs in the upper and lower extremities power indices, upper extremity strength, body fat percentage, and flexibility of the upper and lower extremities.
Conclusion: Male bodybuliders can improve their muscular functions and body composition using plyometric resistance training.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Plyometric training
  • Elastic training
  • Resistance Training
  • muscle function
  • bodybuilder
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