ارتباط بین نیمرخ آنتروپومتریک و زیست‌حرکتی با عملکرد رقابتی دوندگان تیم ملی دوی صحرانوردی ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: دوی صحرانوردی از ماده­های مهیج­ و محبوب­ در بین دوهای استقامت محسوب می­­شود و به دلیل شرایط خاص این رشته که در طبیعت برگزار می­شود، نیازمند شرایط ویژه­ای از نقطه نظر آنتروپومتریک و زیست­ حرکتی می­باشد. از این رو، هدف پژوهش حاضر تعیین نیمرخ آنتروپومتریک و زیست­حرکتی اعضای تیم ملی دوی صحرانوردی کشور بود.
 
مواد و روش ها: شرکت کنندگان این پژوهش نه دونده بزرگسال مرد تیم ملی دوی صحرانوردی با سن 4.1±25.4 سال، قد 7.2±175.2 سانتی متر، وزن 8.7±63.5کیلوگرم و رکوردهای0.47±36.55 دقیقه برای 12 کیلومتر بودند. ویژگی­های آنتروپومتریکی شامل: قد، وزن، طول­ها و عرض­های استخوانی، محیط اندام­ها و ضخامت چربی زیر پوستی­ 7 نقطه­ای بود. ویژگی­های زیست حرکتی شامل: توان هوازی، توان بی­هوازی، توان انفجاری، سرعت، چابکی، انعطاف­پذیری، حداکثر ضربان قلب و استراحتی بود که با روش­های استاندارد مورد اندازه گیری قرار گرفت.
 
یافته‌ها: بین متغیر­های آنتروپومتریک، طول ران (0.038=P و 0.69- =r)، عرض قدامی- خلفی سینه (0.009=P و 0.80- =r)، عرض سینه (0.006=P و 0.82-=r)، محیط سینه (0.032=P و 0.70-=r) و از طرفی بین متغیرهای زیست حرکتی تنها ضربان قلب استراحت (0.001= P و 0.94 =r) و رکورد 10 کیلومتر (0.05=P و 0.62=r) با بهترین رکورد دوی صحرانوردی آزمودنی­ها رابطه معنی­دار داشت. همچنین، 12/2 دقیقه اختلاف بین رکورد مردان تیم ملی دوی صحرانوردی کشور با میانگین رکورد دوندگان جهانی مشاهده شد، که به طور معناداری، رکورد دوندگان خارجی بهتر‌ از دوندگان داخلی بود.
نتیجه گیری: براساس یافته­های پژوهش حاضر، ضعف عملکرد دوندگان تیم ملی دوی صحرانوردی متاثر از ویژگی­های آنتروپومتریک، زیست حرکتی و نوع تمرینات آنهاست. لذا، توجه ویژه به برخی از این شاخص­ها در راهبردهای استعدادیابی و نیز برنامه­ریزی دقیق­تر در راستای تجویز تمرینات مطلوب برای تقویت عوامل قابل توسعه به مسوولین فدراسیون دوومیدانی، مربیان و ورزشکاران توصیه می­گردد.

تازه های تحقیق

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کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Relationship between anthropometric and bio-motor profile with competitive performance of Iranian national cross-country running team

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hadi Nobari
  • Hamid Arazi
  • Bahman Mirzaei
Department of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background & Purpose: Cross-country running is considered as one of the most exciting and popular series of the endurance running and because of the specific circumstances of this field which helds in the off-road environment, it requires high fitness. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to determine anthropometric and Bio-motor profile of national Cross-Country running team members.
Materials & Methods: The participants were 9 male national Iranian cross-country runners. The age of athletes was 25.4±4.1 years and records 36.55±47 min for the 12 km; All subjects anthropometric characteristics, height, weight, lengths, width, circumference and skin-fold thickness were calculated and bio-motor factors, including VO2MAX, anaerobic power, explosive power, speed, agility, flexibility, maximum heart rate and resting heart rate were assessed and measured with standard methods.
Results: The findings indicated a significant relationship between anthropometric variables, femur length (r=-0.69, p=0.038), anterior-posterior chest width (r=-0.80, p=0.009), chest width (r=-0.82, p=0.006), Mid-axilla skinfold (r=0.75, p=0.019) and Chest circumference (r=0.709, p=0.032). Among the bio motor variables, there were a significant relationship only in resting heart rate (r=0.94, p=0.001) and 10 km record (r=0.62, p=0.05) with competitive performance of cross-country runners. Also, 2.12 minutes difference has been observed between the male's national team record and international average record of runners, which significantly (0.001) indicates that the foreign runners’ records are better than the records of runners inside the country.
 
Conclusions: According to these findings, the national team cross-country runners’ underperformance refers to their anthropometric characteristics, bio motor factors and the type of training. Therefore, it recommended to coaches, athletes and athletics Federation officials to consider special attention to some of these indicators in formulation of their strategies and planning in order to implement the proper exercises to strengthen and enhancement of developmental factors.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Profile
  • aerobic power
  • Cross-country running
  • Somatotype
  • Endurance runners
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